Tag Archives: mediums

The Divine Sarah at a Séance: 1892

sarah bernhardt in coffin


Not Being Able to Understand How Spirits Are Materialized She Denounces Members of Her Company as Confederates


Darmont, Her Leading Man, Locked the Medium in the Cabinet, but the Actress Said He Had Been Duped.


Scientific Frenchmen Engineered the “Circle,” Which Broke up in Something Very Much Resembling a Row.

Mme. Sarah Bernhardt began by being an ordinary spectator at a spiritualistic séance on Thursday night, but before the close she was the “star performer,” and every one else, including the medium, the members of her company, the French scientific men present and perhaps the spirits, sank into insignificance when she stalked up and down the room in tragic rage.

Those who had the pleasure of witnessing her outbursts declare that they excelled anything she had done the previous evening in “Leah the Forsaken.” She was not acting at the séance. Even magnificent Sarah can’t beat nature, and her natural fury is a trifle more interesting than her stage rage.

Madame was taken sick at the soiree mendier at the Manhattan Athletic Club on Thursday evening. It was given as a benefit by members of her company, and her indisposition brought it to an abrupt close. The disappointed spectators imagined that Sarah went at once to her hotel and took to her bed. She didn’t. She had made a tryst with the ghosts of the departed and she meant to keep it.

Two carriages drove up to the house of Mrs. Carrie M. Sawyer, a materializing medium at No. 232 West Twenty-first Street at half-past eleven o’clock. Mme. Bernhardt jumped out of one; two imminent French scientists resident in New York followed her, and out of the other carriage emerged M. Albert Darmont, her leading man; a young lady of the company with big blue, frightened eyes and straw colored hair, and a stout gentleman who takes old men’s parts in the show.

In the second story front parlor a little group of people were awaiting the advent of Mme. Bernhardt. There was a tall, thin Frenchman of high position, with his good-looking French-American bride; an attractive young lady of “The Great Metropolis” company, a little fat man with a red face and pink mustache and a young lady from Australia. When Mme. Bernhardt went in she shook hands with all these people and then took a seat in a low and luxurious armchair.


In one corner of the parlor stood a cabinet built of strong framework and wire netting. It is what is known as a “test” cabinet, having been built at great expense by Henry J. Newton, president of the First Society of Spiritualists. Mr. Newton considers this cabinet the crowning glory of a lifetime devoted to psychical research, and he offers $1000 to any one who can get out of it without aid from the other world.

Mme. Bernhardt was attired richly, being in the tight fitting sort of dress which she uses so much on the stage. Her thick hair of burnished gold was thrown to the breezes like the flowing locks of Paderewski and she wore no hat or bonnet when she entered. Her pose was that of Cleopatra on her throne.

There were no formalities after the introductions and the Professor, at whose invitation the séance was given, explained to the company that spiritualism was undoubtedly a wonderful force. He thought it was well worth investigating from a scientific standpoint and he was devoting a great deal of his time and some of his money to the study of it.

“I have made a thorough examination of this cabinet,” he said, “and that there may be no mistake I have brought a padlock of my own.” The medium was then seated in a chair in the cabinet, and the Professor and M. Darmont proceeded to lock her in. There was a quiet smile upon the face of Mrs. Sawyer as the two enthusiasts applied the tests to her. They padlocked the door, and then M. Darmont got a two cent postage stamp, wrote his name upon it and pasted it over the keyhole of the padlock.

“If anyone gets out of that cabinet,” M. Darmont remarked, “I’ll get some sauce tartare, pour it over my hat and eat it.

Then they turned out the gas and the audience began singing religious songs. The only light was from a candle covered with tissue paper. Then it transpired that the eminent professor, at whose request the séance was held, was provided with a lantern which lighted itself when the holder pressed a button. The man who takes the senile parts in Mme. Bernhardt’s company, and who was sitting on a lounge behind the tragedienne, had in his overcoat pocket a revolver, a box of matches, a pair of handcuffs and a false beard. M. Darmont was armed with matches, a lasso with which to catch ghosts and a small wax candle. It looked as if the Bernhardt contingent were investigators in earnest.


After a lapse of twenty minutes spirits of the departed began to emerge from the cabinet in large numbers. The “spirit control” of Mrs. Sawyer is a child named “Maudie,” who speaks in a babyish voice, and this spirit took charge of the proceedings and explained to the audience what was coming.

Mme. Bernhardt was very much impressed with the conversation of the baby spirit “Maudie.” When the spirit first announced its presence she said in English.

“Is that you, Maudie? I would like to go up to de cabine and kees you. May I kees you, Maudie?”

The spirit replied: “You promised my medium to give her your photograph. If you will do so you can get a picture of Maudie. Presently you will be able to go into the cabinet when the forces become strong enough to materialize.

“Tank you, Maudie; you vera good,” said Mme. Bernhardt.

Then the audience sang: “Tramp, tramp, tramp, the boys are marching,” a favorite of a spirit named Elan, the uncle of “Maudie,” who is one of the medium’s “controls.” The spirits seemed to like this and a banjo which heretofore had taken no part in the proceedings began to sail through the air playing the tune.

“I do not know how zat is done,” said Bernhardt. “Zat is vare funny.”

After a dozen spirits had come from the cabinet, careened through the atmosphere and then vanished into space, a particularly depressing scene took place. A cold air seemed to rush into the room and a presence appeared twenty feet from the cabinet. Everyone felt “spookish.” “That is the woman who was drowned in the steamer Ville de Havre,” whispered the Professor with bated breath.

“Help, help! Save me, save me!” screamed the form, and then it vanished through the floor.

It reappeared in a moment. It asked to speak to Mme. Bernhardt, and the actress advanced to the cabinet and took its hands. The form looked like a corpse and its hands were wet, madame said. It gave a gasp and disappeared. Sarah dropped back into her seat.

“I take her hand,” she said. “I scratch. I try to make the spirit cry. I tear de flesh with my nails. She no scream at all.”


The French Professor and all the others recognized forms as departed relatives. They went up to the cabinet and talked with them. Mme. Bernhardt asked questions about the phenomena. While she was talking a pair of handcuffs that had been sitting on the piano suddenly jumped in the air and threw themselves at the feet of M. Darmont. If they had fallen on his toes he would have uttered an agonizing yell, of they weighed about six pounds. There was a feeling of consternation all around.

“The medium no do that,” exclaimed the Professor. “I lock her in the de cabinet myself. It is a thing quite remarkable.”

Oui,” joined in M. Darmont, ”et moi j’ai la clef.” Or in English, “Yes, and I’ve got the key, see?”

“Let us sing ‘Nearer, My God, to Thee,’” suggested the Professor. “It requires the music for to make the spirits come some more.”

Oui, chantons,” said madame, “pour faire venir les apparitions.’”

Every one joined in the chorus. By this time the room was close and suffocating, all the doors and windows being hermetically sealed. Mme. Bernhardt was reeking with perfumes and they filled the room and possessed the senses of the audience. It was a spice-like odor, very captivating.

More spirits emerged from the retreat of the captive medium and every one made exclamations of surprise. The Professor was very explicit in his definitions of the limit of the power of spiritualism. The members of Mme. Bernhardt’s company asked questions frequently and accepted the explanations gratefully and with much politeness.

“I would like to know if it is necessaire for de young lady at de piano to sit before me in front so I no can see,” said the actress with the straw-colored hair humbly when the Professor inquired if there was anything any one wanted to know.

The mistake was corrected and the actress was given a better view of the apparitions.

The last phenomenon was the passage of the medium through the locked door of the cabinet. A young lady and the fat man with the pink mustache were called up to join hands so that the spirits might draw from them sufficient “forces” to perform the wonderful act. There was a rattling as if of chains and the medium suddenly appeared. The gas was lighted and the séance was over.


It had been apparent for some little time before the finale that Mme. Bernhardt didn’t like the way the spirits were treating her. They distinctly slighted the great actress, making revelations to everyone in the room but her. Instead of being the centre of attraction, she seemed to hold a second rate position spiritually, and it made her mad.

Immediately after the close she made a demonstration. “You didn’t do this thing properly,” she screamed, addressing M. Darmont and the professor. “You didn’t have the medium locked up. It was an optical illusion. You thought she was in the cabinet, but she was not. If she was locked up these manifestations could not have occurred.”

She stalked up and down in tragic rage, growing more furious every moment. “No, it cannot be!” she screamed. “You must be in league with the medium. It is impossible.” She perambulated from north to south, followed by M. Darmont, who was greatly agitated.

“Madame,” he exclaimed, “I swear to you that I locked the medium in the cabinet. Believe me, madame, I am not mistaken. She was there, and I closed the door.”

“No,” screamed the actress, “it cannot be! It is impossible! It must be the work of the devil. You are all fools or confederates.”

“But, madame,” put in M. Darmont, “I beg of you. I am not a fool or a confederate. I am a member of your company. The professor is engaged in a great scientific work and he would not deceive you.”

Mme. Bernhardt was livid with rage. She made a rush at the cabinet and tried to find out if it was ghost proof. She ran all round it and banged at it with her firsts.


“There must be a confederate,” she howled. “It is a trick. You say that the medium cannot speak French. Bah! One of the spirits said to me, ‘Ah, Sarah, c’est toi!” How can that be? You must all be confederates. I cannot believe it.”

One of the French scientists drew himself up.Mon Dieu!” he exclaimed. “I wish it was a man who said I was a confederate. He would not live; no, not one day. Madame, you insult me. I have never been before here, and I am a gentleman.” “Madame,” screamed the professor, keeping pace with her in her frantic march up and down the room, “you are unkind. I have acted in good faith. What do you want? You saw the medium locked in the cabinet. You think it is a trick. You are angry because you cannot find out how it is done. You will be sorry for having accursed your friends.”

Ou a fait la nuit!” shouted madame, throwing up her left arm and letting it fall upon her hip with a thud. “I have not seen anything. You assist the medium. You think you locked her up, but you didn’t. Ah, you think you are smart, but you are not.”

“Do not insult us, I beg of you, madame,” exclaimed M. Darmont. “I assure you that what I say is correct. I do not try to explain it, but I know that the medium was in the cabinet when I locked the door. I am not a madman, and I can rely on what I see. The postage stamp is intact and the lock is just as the professor left it.”

“It seemed as if she was in the cabinet,” screamed the actress, “but there must be some deception.”

Madame. Bernhardt left the house in a towering rage. The members of her company followed her, greatly chagrined at her conduct and humiliated at the suggestion she had made that they were in a conspiracy to deceive her.

The most miserable man in New York was the French professor, who has been her intimate friend for years and who was heartbroken at the suggestion that he had been hoodwinked or was a confederate.

New York Herald 23 April 1892: p. 3

Mrs Daffodil’s Aide-memoire: It is difficult to say how much Sarah Bernhardt truly believed in the occult. Like many artists of her time, she over-dramatised her enthusiasm for death and its trappings. The photograph above of her “sleeping” in her coffin caused a scandal. She was known to have attended séances at Alphonse Mucha’s studio and elsewhere, but it is difficult to escape the suspicion that she sought drama and sensation more than spiritual enlightenment.

Some of the background: Mrs Carrie Sawyer was a well-known materialization medium, although one investigator said of her “Mrs. Sawyer is a gentlewoman and a strong medium, but she is surrounded by a coarse magnetism, the baleful influence of which she seems powerless to resist. [Source: Materialized Apparitions: If Not Beings from Another life, What Are They?, Edward Augustus Brackett, Boston: Colby and Rich, Publishers, 1886]

Mr Newton, the provider of the test cabinet, was well-known in Spiritualist circles. When the Fox sisters confessed that the raps had been caused by the girls cracking their toe joints, he refused to believe and announced that the manifestations he had seen could not have been caused by fraud.

“Leah the Forsaken,” was a popular tear-jerker play about a Jewish maiden in love with a Christian youth in a small Austrian village. The heroine rages and pronounces a curse on the man who betrays her. It was the perfect “meaty” role for a scenery-chewer like Madame.

“Maudie” is typical of the child “spirit guides,” so popular during this time. The child’s prattle could disguise the medium’s voice and we have previously seen how mediums might purchase child-sized figures to be used in the séance room or go down on their knees in the dark to impersonate a toddler.

SS Ville du Havre was a steamship running between France and New York. 22 November 1873, Ville du Havre hit a Scottish clipper and sank in only 12 minutes. 226 people died.

Mrs Daffodil invites you to join her on the curiously named “Face-book,”where you will find a feast of fashion hints, fads and fancies, and historical anecdotes.


The Princess was a Medium: 1908

Palladino medium behind curtain

The Italian medium Eusapia Palladino.




Famous Princess is a Spiritualist of International Prominence and is a Medium of Recognized Ability

Rome April 29. Although the University of Rome recently rejected the proposition to establish a chair of psychical research for the scientific investigation of ghosts, astral doubles and occult phenomena generally, it must not be inferred that the cult of the spook attracts little attention here. The Eternal City has more haunted houses and probably a larger percentage of believers in spiritualism than any other city in the world. They are found in all grades of society, and at the present time aristocratic circles are much given to entertaining mediums and visitors from the other world.

The recognized leader among them is the Princess d’Antuni del Drago. She bears not the slightest resemblance to the popular conception of a feminine ghost-chaser. She is a widow, young, pretty, and accomplished. She is not only a believer in spirits, but claims to be a medium also. It was she who drew from Marconi the acknowledgement that there was “something in it” which science—at least as much of it as he knew—could not explain. Further than that he would not go, but as this was the result of one sitting only with the princess, there is no telling where he would have ended had he continued his investigations.

Princess d’Autuni belongs to the aristocratic house of Potenziani, and owns the handsome del Drago palace, and has thus been landlady to the last two American ambassadors. She says that as a child she was conscious of voices and visions which troubled her little soul, but which her skeptical elders attributed to imagination. She married very young, and it was after this that she became conscious that she was not quite as other people, that she had powers which were denied them, and which no make her a remarkable medium.

A few months after her marriage, she relates, she was lying in bed one evening reading, when the bedclothes suddenly dropped to the floor, as though snatched away by impatient hands. She turned, surprised, and became conscious of a cloud, as it were, between her and the light. As she gazed the shadow took form and substance and assumed the aspect of a woman dressed in black. When the princess made an involuntary movement to rise the apparition said in a solemn voice, “Do not be frightened.  I come in love. I am your husband’s first wife and come to warn you that you will have a son, but he will not live. Give this to Ferdinando as a proof of my love,” at the same time holding out a lock of hair.

The princess’s entranced senses then burst their bonds and she shrieked with fear. Hearing her cries Prince d’Autuni, who was in the next room, rushed to her and found her half fainting. He also saw as he entered the room, so he said, the shadowy form of a woman for the ghost had begun to dissolve into thin air. Neither would have believed the reality of what they had seen had it not been for the lock of hair which was lying on the floor and which, being compared with that of the late princess, was found to be identical.

In due course a son and heir was born to the happy couple who forgot the warning, but their joy was short-lived, as the first Princess d’Antuni appeared again to her successor in almost the same circumstances as before. “I am come to warn you,” she said, “the other time you forgot my words, but now do not let a moment pass without having the boy baptized. My poor child, he will only live a day or two. Take heed of my words and do not delay the baptism.” The poor mother hugged her apparently healthy baby in her arms, but sent for the priest, had the ceremony performed, and the next day she was childless. The doctor declared himself baffled. “I never knew a perfectly healthy baby to die in that way before,” he exclaimed.

From this time on Princess d’Antuni has had many manifestations and warnings of a supernatural character. One day, she states, she had been at a kirmess at the Pincio, where she presided over a stall in the bridal dress of a Genoese peasant and made many sales. She entered her carriage with a friend in the highest of good spirits to return home, when suddenly she felt as though a pall had settled over her, and when asked by her companion what was the matter, replied that she was sure that when they met again something  dreadful would have happened. The next day she was standing before her mirror, when she saw her husband’s reflection in it. “What! You, Ferdinando!” she exclaimed, and turned around, but could see no one.

Her maid, Maria, said that the prince must have been in the room, as she heard his footsteps, but on going to look for him found that he was not in the house. Meanwhile Prince d’Antuni, who was at the capitol, had been seized with a fainting sensation and simultaneously, he declared, saw his wife before her glass. That night he was taken ill and died ten days later. For three months after his death the princess asserts, she was able to hold telepathic communication with him and was greatly solaced thereby.

She has had several séances with the celebrated medium, Palladino. On one of these occasions the later sat down at a table and began to write. She covered two or three pages of paper with what both she and her friends supposed to be rubbish; the letters were there, but they made no sense. The paper, however, was examined, and proved to be the purest Arabic, which language certainly neither Princess d’Antuni nor Palladino have any knowledge of whatever. Logansport [IN] Daily Reporter 29 April 1908: p. 4 

SPIRIT TELEGRAPHY—With regard to the statement that Mr. Marconi has become a spiritualist, a special cable dispatch from Rome, of December 15, says: “The conversion of Signor Marconi to spiritualism by Princess d’Antuni del Drago, who has the reputation of being a medium of exceptional power, has caused a sensation among believers in communication between the seen and the unseen world. Mr. Marconi has always been regarded as intensely practical. He was not known to take an interest in anything outside of the material and scientific except art and history. There is reason to believe that he became interested in the study of wireless messages to the other world by the declaration of Lombroso, the alienist professor of psychiatry in the University of Turin, in which he said the subject was of colossal importance. The Princess d’Antuni del Drago says she has held séances in her own palace and has been favored with extraordinary phenomena. ‘I met Marconi a few weeks ago,’ she remarked, ‘at an entertainment given by Marchioness Pinolecee. He said he did not believe in spiritualism. I invited him to my house to assist in a séance. He was one of three. A medium called Politi and I, with Marconi, formed a circle around a small table. Without relating all that took place, suffice it to say that when Marconi left he had been convinced so fully that he determined to study the subject scientifically, and promised to place me in communication with Prof. Crookes. I am anxiously awaiting to learn if the great inventor has found any explanation for the phenomena.'” Electrical World, Volume 48, 1906 

Mrs Daffodil’s Aide-memoire: Marconi was, of course, the Italian inventor of the wireless. In his early days he wrote to the Italian ministry of Posts and Telegraphs with his proposal for wireless telegraphy. The minister did not believe his claims and wrote “to the Longara!” (Rome’s insane asylum) on Marconi’s letter.  Discouraged by this lack of interest, Marconi travelled with his Scotch mother to England where he impressed the chief Electrical Engineer of the British Post Office. The British knew how to appreciate his talents and he was launched on his electrifying career.  Mrs Daffodil suspects that if Marconi did say that there was “something in it” to the Princess, he was merely being polite to a charming lady. On the other hand, the inventor was an ardent apologist for Mussolini, which suggests a strong capacity for self-delusion.

Eusapia Palladino was a curious person. A coarse woman of peasant stock, she was considered to be a hugely powerful physical medium. Once married to a travelling conjuror, she was caught in fraud many times and frankly admitted that she would cheat if given a chance. Psychic investigator Cesare Lombroso was thrilled by her table levitations; he was, it was whispered, willing to support any of her claims, as he found her elevating in a more physical sense. In reading the glowing reports on the medium’s gifts, it becomes apparent that the Palladino creature managed to fascinate entire flocks of psychic investigators, including Hereward Carrington, who became her manager, and magician Howard Thurston. “Vital, vulgar, amorous, and a cheat,” is how her biographer Eric Dingwall described her.

Auguste Politi was an Italian watchmaker and medium noted for having once levitated a piano. We are not told of his personal charms. Prof. Crookes was Sir William Crookes, the distinguished English chemist, who saw it as his scientific duty to study the spirit world in darkened rooms with the assistance of pretty young lady mediums like Florence Cook, once caught flitting around the room in spirit character in her underclothes. Mrs Daffodil is never surprised at the credulity displayed in the charged darkness of the seance room.